Definition of law: The term law has been defined differently by different authors. Some perceive it as a system of rules which all citizens of that country must obey. This means that the law of a country is superior to the citizens of the country whether written or unwritten as long as it is the law of the country. Elias (1962) defined law as a rule Jaud down for the guidance of an intelligent being by an intelligent being having power over him and Renter (1970) opines that law comprises all rules and arrangements recognized by the law courts. From the above, law can be defined as a rules written or unwritten recognized by the courts. However, law can also be a discipline or course of study in higher institutions of learning, just as we have courses like: education, medicine, engineering, pharmacy etc. it may also be a profession. But in this unit, the term law is the one used for the proper regulation of a society by appropriate authority.
Law has two main branches, civil and criminal. Civil laws are those applied to settle civil cases such as: disputes between private individuals, between individuals and businesses and between business, in this category we have law or torts, family law, and law, and laws of contract. Criminal laws on the other hand are those laws applied to settle criminal cases. Evolution of Education Laws in Nigeria. The history of education laws in Nigeria could be traced to 1882 when the first educational ordinance was enacted. The 1882 education ordinance was the first education official law made by the colonial masters in Nigeria.
1. establishment of a general board of education for Lagos colony made up of the governors as the chairman and members of the state . executive council as members and other four nominees by the government.
2, The general education is empowered to hire and fire local education boards which were meant only to advise the general education board on the needs and areas where new schools are to be established, conditions for granting certificate to. teachers and set condition for schools to be qualified for government grant-in aid.
3. that shall be one inspector of schools for West African colonies and three assistant inspectors to be based in Lagos, Sierra Leon and the Gold Coast.
4. that there shall be both the government, missionary and community primary schools, and that the school curriculum should include subjects like Reading, Writing, Arithmetic Domestic Science, English Language, History.
Education Ordinance of 1887
Up to 1886, Lagos colony was administered by the same colonial authority that governed the Gold Coast colony. This led to the attention given to the problems and prospects of the second education ordinance in 1887. opined that this was technically the first education ordinance to be enacted for Nigeria; the 1882 education ordinance was for the British West African colonies in which Lagos was one.
1. a board of education be established for Lagos colony comprising the Governor as the chairman, members of the house of legislature and other four Governor nominee
2. the board established shall assist school with grants and scholarship
3. the board shall establish conditions for granting scholarships to pupils.
(a) schools must have a manager with the power to hire and fire, teachers and also be accountable to schools on financial matters.
(b) Teachers must be qualified and certified
(c) Schools academic performance in public examination must be good.
(d) Schools must be open for inspection.
(e) School must be for all children irrespective of their religion or ethnic background and no religious education must be given to students without the parent background.
Education ordinate in 1908
In Nigeria, the Northern protectorate was established in 1899 and in 1006 the colonies of Lagos and Southern Nigeria were merged. this merger, in 1908, the Department of Education was created for the new Southern protectorate of Nigeria.
This department was responsible for production of education codes to oversee the education need, expansion and management of education in the Southern protectorate. The 1908 education ordinance focused on the Southern protectorate and also provided the following:
1, that there shall be a department of education in the colony,
2, that there shall be a director of education the head of the department of education who would be responsible to the governor on education
The establishment of a separate department for education for Southern protectorate was a major development in the history of Nigerian education because prior to this time, education had been administered from the Governors office.
No specific department was designated to oversee the activities in the education department then.
The establishment of the department of education changed the scenario.
Training was organized for some officers who were given responsibility to plan, coordinate, and control and supervise the educational development in the merged Lagos colony and Southern protectorate and the head gave an account of the stewardship in the ministry to the governor. education.
This resulted in greater efficiency and accountability in the management of education.
Education Ordinance and Code of 1926
the Southern and Northern protectorates came up in 1914 by Sir Fredrick Lugard who was also appointed the Government General for Nigerian territory by the ‘British Government. Lugard was aware of the gap in educational development between the Southern and Northern Nigeria and the importance of education to development of the people and the nation at large.
He devoted special attention formulation of education policy and its implementation.
After a few of assumption of office, Luggard proposed new guidelines for missionary schools, because the 1914 education ordinance was critized by the colonial master’s office in London and leaders of various missionary groups in Nigeria. Other provisions of the 1916. Education Ordinance where:
(I) grants-in aid to the mission for running the missionary school should be increased and inspection of school should be more frequent.
(II) Christian Religion should not be taught in schools located in the Muslim community in the Northern Nigeria.
(III) Schools located in the rural areas should teach Agriculture and Local Crafts,
(IV) No interference among the various agencies involved in education and there should be cooperation among these agencies.
The 1916 education ordinance resulted in the improvement of efficiency and effectiveness of school management and leadership, better teaching staff quality, and higher pupils’ academic performance.
It was said that the ordinance focused mainly on missionary schools which were located mostly in the Southern Nigeria.
It also contained nothing to bridge the education gap between the Southern and Northern Nigeria.
In 1922, the Phelps- Stokes Commission published a report a memorandum on education.